RabbitMQ - Spring boot 整合

2020-10-26   68 次阅读


新建项目

新建项目
选择依赖

pom.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 https://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
	<parent>
		<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
		<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
		<version>2.2.4.RELEASE</version>
		<relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
	</parent>
	<groupId>cn.tedu</groupId>
	<artifactId>rabbitmq-springboot</artifactId>
	<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	<name>rabbitmq-springboot</name>
	<description>Demo project for Spring Boot</description>

	<properties>
		<java.version>1.8</java.version>
	</properties>

	<dependencies>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-amqp</artifactId>
		</dependency>

		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
			<scope>test</scope>
			<exclusions>
				<exclusion>
					<groupId>org.junit.vintage</groupId>
					<artifactId>junit-vintage-engine</artifactId>
				</exclusion>
			</exclusions>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.amqp</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-rabbit-test</artifactId>
			<scope>test</scope>
		</dependency>
	</dependencies>

	<build>
		<plugins>
			<plugin>
				<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
				<artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
			</plugin>
		</plugins>
	</build>

</project>

application.yml

spring:
  rabbitmq:
    host: 192.168.64.140
    username: admin
    password: admin

主程序

删除自动创建的主程序

我们为每种模式创建一个包,在每个包中创建各自的主程序,单独测试.

在这里插入图片描述

简单模式

主程序

Spring提供的Queue类,是队列的封装对象,它封装了队列的参数信息.

RabbitMQ的自动配置类,会发现这些Queue实例,并在RabbitMQ服务器中定义这些队列.

package cn.tedu.m1;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.Queue;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;

@SpringBootApplication
public class Main {
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(Main.class, args);
	}

	@Bean
	public Queue task_queue() {
		/*
		 * 可用以下形式: 
		 * new Queue("helloworld") - 持久,非排他,非自动删除
		 * new Queue("helloworld",false,false,false,null)
		 */
		return new Queue("helloworld",false);
	}
}

生产者

AmqpTemplate是rabbitmq客户端API的一个封装工具,提供了简便的方法来执行消息操作.

AmqpTemplate由自动配置类自动创建

package cn.tedu.m1;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.AmqpTemplate;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class SimpleSender {
	@Autowired
	AmqpTemplate t;
	
	public void send() {
		// 这里向 helloworld 队列发送消息
		t.convertAndSend("helloworld", "Hello world!! "+System.currentTimeMillis());
		System.out.println("消息已发送");
	}
}

消费者

通过@RabbitListener从指定的队列接收消息

使用@RebbitHandler注解的方法来处理消息

package cn.tedu.m1;

import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitHandler;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitListener;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
@RabbitListener(queues = "helloworld")
public class SimpleReceiver {
	@RabbitHandler
	public void receive(String msg) {
		System.out.println("收到: "+msg);
	}
}

这里还可以使用另一种形式:

@Component
public class SimpleReceiver {
	@RabbitListener(queues = "helloworld")
	public void receive(String msg) {
		System.out.println("收到: "+msg);
	}
}

另外,@RabbitListener 注解中也可以直接定义队列:

	@RabbitListener(queuesToDeclare = @Queue(name = "helloworld",durable = "false"))

测试类

在存放测试代码的目录中,创建测试类

package cn.tedu.m1;

import java.util.Scanner;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;

@SpringBootTest
class SimpleTests {
	@Autowired
	SimpleSender simpleSender;

	@Test
	void test1() throws Exception {
		simpleSender.send();
		System.out.println("[按回车结束]");
		new Scanner(System.in).nextLine();
	}

}

在这里插入图片描述

工作模式

主程序

在主程序中创建名为task_queue持久队列

package cn.tedu.m2;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.Queue;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;

@SpringBootApplication
public class Main {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(Main.class, args);
	}
	@Bean
	public Queue task_queue() {
		// 这个构造方法创建的队列参数为: 持久,非排他,非自动删除
		return new Queue("task_queue");
	}
}

生产者

package cn.tedu.m2;

import java.util.Scanner;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.AmqpTemplate;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class WorkSender {
	@Autowired
	AmqpTemplate t;
	
	public void send() {
		while (true) {
			System.out.print("输入:");
			String s = new Scanner(System.in).nextLine();
			
			//spring 默认将消息的 DeliveryMode 设置为 PERSISTENT 持久化,
			t.convertAndSend("task_queue", s);
		}
	}
}

spring boot封装的 rabbitmq api 中, 发送的消息默认是持久化消息.
如果希望发送非持久化消息, 需要在发送消息时做以下设置:

  • 使用 MessagePostProcessor 前置处理器参数
  • 从消息中获取消息的属性对象
  • 在属性中把 DeliveryMode 设置为非持久化
	//如果需要设置消息为非持久化,可以取得消息的属性对象,修改它的deliveryMode属性
	t.convertAndSend("task_queue", (Object) s, new MessagePostProcessor() {
		@Override
		public Message postProcessMessage(Message message) throws AmqpException {
			MessageProperties props = message.getMessageProperties();
			props.setDeliveryMode(MessageDeliveryMode.NON_PERSISTENT);
			return message;
		}
	});

消费者

package cn.tedu.m2;

import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitListener;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class WorkReceiver1 {
	@RabbitListener(queues="task_queue")
	public void receive1(String s) throws Exception {
		System.out.println("receiver1 - 收到: "+s);
		for (int i = 0; i < s.length(); i++) {
			if (s.charAt(i) == '.') {
				Thread.sleep(1000);
			}
		}
	}
	
	@RabbitListener(queues="task_queue")
	public void receive2(String s) throws Exception {
		System.out.println("receiver2 - 收到: "+s);
		for (int i = 0; i < s.length(); i++) {
			if (s.charAt(i) == '.') {
				Thread.sleep(1000);
			}
		}
	}
}

测试类

package cn.tedu.m2;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;

@SpringBootTest
class WorkTests {
	@Autowired
	WorkSender workSender;

	@Test
	void test1() throws Exception {
		workSender.send();
	}
}

在这里插入图片描述

ack模式

在 spring boot 中提供了三种确认模式:

  • NONE - 使用rabbitmq的自动确认
  • AUTO - 使用rabbitmq的手动确认, springboot会自动发送确认回执 (默认)
  • MANUAL - 使用rabbitmq的手动确认, 且必须手动执行确认操作

默认的 AUTO 模式中, 处理消息的方法抛出异常, 则表示消息没有被正确处理, 该消息会被重新发送.

设置 ack 模式

spring:
  rabbitmq:
    listener:
      simple:
        # acknowledgeMode: NONE # rabbitmq的自动确认
        acknowledgeMode: AUTO # rabbitmq的手动确认, springboot会自动发送确认回执 (默认)
        # acknowledgeMode: MANUAL # rabbitmq的手动确认, springboot不发送回执, 必须自己编码发送回执

手动执行确认操作

如果设置为 MANUAL 模式,必须手动执行确认操作

	@RabbitListener(queues="task_queue")
	public void receive1(String s, Channel c, @Header(name=AmqpHeaders.DELIVERY_TAG) long tag) throws Exception {
		System.out.println("receiver1 - 收到: "+s);
		for (int i = 0; i < s.length(); i++) {
			if (s.charAt(i) == '.') {
				Thread.sleep(1000);
			}
		}
		// 手动发送确认回执
		c.basicAck(tag, false);
	}

在这里插入图片描述

抓取数量

工作模式中, 为了合理地分发数据, 需要将 qos 设置成 1, 每次只接收一条消息, 处理完成后才接收下一条消息.

spring boot 中是通过 prefetch 属性进行设置, 改属性的默认值是 250.

spring:
  rabbitmq:
    listener:
      simple:
        prefetch: 1 # qos=1, 默认250

在这里插入图片描述

发布和订阅模式

主程序

创建 FanoutExcnahge 实例, 封装 fanout 类型交换机定义信息.

spring boot 的自动配置类会自动发现交换机实例, 并在 RabbitMQ 服务器中定义该交换机.

package cn.tedu.m3;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.FanoutExchange;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;

@SpringBootApplication
public class Main {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(Main.class, args);
	}
	@Bean
	public FanoutExchange fanoutExchange() {
		return new FanoutExchange("logs");
	}
}

生产者

生产者向指定的交换机 logs 发送数据.

不需要指定队列名或路由键, 即使指定也无效, 因为 fanout 交换机会向所有绑定的队列发送数据, 而不是有选择的发送.

package cn.tedu.m3;

import java.util.Scanner;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.AmqpTemplate;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class Publisher {
	@Autowired
	AmqpTemplate t;
	
	public void send() {
		while (true) {
			System.out.print("输入:");
			String s = new Scanner(System.in).nextLine();
			// 指定向 logs 交换机发送, 不指定队列名或路由键
			t.convertAndSend("logs","",s);
		}
	}
}

消费者

消费者需要执行以下操作:

  1. 定义随机队列(随机命名,非持久,排他,自动删除)
  2. 定义交换机(可以省略, 已在主程序中定义)
  3. 将队列绑定到交换机

spring boot 通过注解完成以上操作:

@RabbitListener(bindings = @QueueBinding( //这里进行绑定设置
	value = @Queue, //这里定义随机队列,默认属性: 随机命名,非持久,排他,自动删除
	exchange = @Exchange(name = "logs", declare = "false") //指定 logs 交换机,因为主程序中已经定义,这里不进行定义
))
package cn.tedu.m3;

import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.Exchange;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.Queue;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.QueueBinding;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitListener;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class Subscriber {
	@RabbitListener(bindings = @QueueBinding(value = @Queue, exchange = @Exchange(name = "logs", declare = "false")))
	public void receive1(String s) throws Exception {
		System.out.println("receiver1 - 收到: "+s);
	}
	@RabbitListener(bindings = @QueueBinding(value = @Queue, exchange = @Exchange(name = "logs", declare = "false")))
	public void receive2(String s) throws Exception {
		System.out.println("receiver2 - 收到: "+s);
	}
}

测试类

package cn.tedu.m3;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;

@SpringBootTest
class PublishSubscribeTests {
	@Autowired
	Publisher publisher;

	@Test
	void test1() throws Exception {
		publisher.send();
	}
}

在这里插入图片描述

路由模式

与发布和订阅模式代码类似, 只是做以下三点调整:

  1. 使用 direct 交换机
  2. 队列和交换机绑定时, 设置绑定键
  3. 发送消息时, 指定路由键

主程序

主程序中使用 DirectExcnahge 对象封装交换机信息, spring boot 自动配置类会自动发现这个对象, 并在 RabbitMQ 服务器上定义这个交换机.

package cn.tedu.m4;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.DirectExchange;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;

@SpringBootApplication
public class Main {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(Main.class, args);
	}
	@Bean
	public DirectExchange fanoutExchange() {
		return new DirectExchange("direct_logs");
	}
}

生产者

生产者向指定的交换机发送消息, 并指定路由键.

package cn.tedu.m4;

import java.util.Scanner;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.AmqpTemplate;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class RouteSender {
	@Autowired
	AmqpTemplate t;
	
	public void send() {
		while (true) {
			System.out.print("输入消息:");
			String s = new Scanner(System.in).nextLine();
			System.out.print("输入路由键:");
			String key = new Scanner(System.in).nextLine();
			// 第二个参数指定路由键
			t.convertAndSend("direct_logs",key,s);
		}
	}
}

消费者

消费者通过注解来定义随机队列, 绑定到交换机, 并指定绑定键:

@RabbitListener(bindings = @QueueBinding( // 这里做绑定设置
	value = @Queue, // 定义队列, 随机命名,非持久,排他,自动删除
	exchange = @Exchange(name = "direct_logs", declare = "false"), // 指定绑定的交换机,主程序中已经定义过队列,这里不进行定义
	key = {"error","info","warning"} // 设置绑定键
))
package cn.tedu.m4;

import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.Exchange;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.Queue;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.QueueBinding;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitListener;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class RouteReceiver {
	@RabbitListener(bindings = @QueueBinding(value = @Queue,exchange = @Exchange(name = "direct_logs", declare = "false"),key = {"error"}))
	public void receive1(String s) throws Exception {
		System.out.println("receiver1 - 收到: "+s);
	}
	@RabbitListener(bindings = @QueueBinding(value = @Queue, exchange = @Exchange(name = "direct_logs", declare = "false"),key = {"error","info","warning"}))
	public void receive2(String s) throws Exception {
		System.out.println("receiver2 - 收到: "+s);
	}
}

测试类

package cn.tedu.m4;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;

@SpringBootTest
class RouteTests {
	@Autowired
	RouteSender sender;

	@Test
	void test1() throws Exception {
		sender.send();
	}
}

在这里插入图片描述

主题模式

主题模式不过是具有特殊规则的路由模式, 代码与路由模式基本相同, 只做如下调整:

  1. 使用 topic 交换机
  2. 使用特殊的绑定键和路由键规则

主程序

package cn.tedu.m5;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.TopicExchange;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;

@SpringBootApplication
public class Main {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(Main.class, args);
	}
	@Bean
	public TopicExchange fanoutExchange() {
		return new TopicExchange("topic_logs");
	}
}

生产者

package cn.tedu.m5;

import java.util.Scanner;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.AmqpTemplate;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class TopicSender {
	@Autowired
	AmqpTemplate t;
	
	public void send() {
		while (true) {
			System.out.print("输入消息:");
			String s = new Scanner(System.in).nextLine();
			System.out.print("输入路由键:");
			String key = new Scanner(System.in).nextLine();
			
			t.convertAndSend("topic_logs",key,s);
		}
	}
}

消费者

package cn.tedu.m5;

import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.Exchange;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.Queue;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.QueueBinding;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitListener;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class TopicReceiver {
	@RabbitListener(bindings = @QueueBinding(value = @Queue,exchange = @Exchange(name = "topic_logs", declare = "false"),key = {"*.orange.*"}))
	public void receive1(String s) throws Exception {
		System.out.println("receiver1 - 收到: "+s);
	}
	@RabbitListener(bindings = @QueueBinding(value = @Queue, exchange = @Exchange(name = "topic_logs", declare = "false"),key = {"*.*.rabbit","lazy.#"}))
	public void receive2(String s) throws Exception {
		System.out.println("receiver2 - 收到: "+s);
	}
}

测试类

package cn.tedu.m5;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;

@SpringBootTest
class TopicTests {
	@Autowired
	TopicSender sender;

	@Test
	void test1() throws Exception {
		sender.send();
	}

}

在这里插入图片描述

RPC异步调用

主程序

主程序中定义两个队列

  • 发送调用信息的队列: rpc_queue
  • 返回结果的队列: 随机命名
package cn.tedu.m6;

import java.util.UUID;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.Queue;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;

@SpringBootApplication
public class Main {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(Main.class, args);
	}
	@Bean
	public Queue sendQueue() {
		return new Queue("rpc_queue",false);
	}
	@Bean
	public Queue rndQueue() {
		return new Queue(UUID.randomUUID().toString(), false);
	}
}

服务端

rpc_queue接收调用数据, 执行运算求斐波那契数,并返回计算结果.
@Rabbitlistener注解对于具有返回值的方法:

  • 会自动获取 replyTo 属性
  • 自动获取 correlationId 属性
  • replyTo 属性指定的队列发送计算结果, 并携带 correlationId 属性
package cn.tedu.m6;

import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitListener;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class RpcServer {
	@RabbitListener(queues = "rpc_queue")
	public long getFbnq(int n) {
		return f(n);
	}

	private long f(int n) {
		if (n==1 || n==2) {
			return 1;
		}
		return f(n-1) + f(n-2);
	}
}

客户端

使用 SPEL 表达式获取随机队列名: "#{rndQueue.name}"

发送调用数据时, 携带随机队列名和correlationId

从随机队列接收调用结果, 并获取correlationId

package cn.tedu.m6;

import java.util.UUID;

import org.springframework.amqp.AmqpException;
import org.springframework.amqp.core.AmqpTemplate;
import org.springframework.amqp.core.Message;
import org.springframework.amqp.core.MessagePostProcessor;
import org.springframework.amqp.core.MessageProperties;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitListener;
import org.springframework.amqp.support.AmqpHeaders;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.messaging.handler.annotation.Header;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class RpcClient {
	@Autowired
	AmqpTemplate t;
	
	@Value("#{rndQueue.name}")
	String rndQueue;
	
	public void send(int n) {
		// 发送调用信息时, 通过前置消息处理器, 对消息属性进行设置, 添加返回队列名和关联id
		t.convertAndSend("rpc_queue", (Object)n, new MessagePostProcessor() {
			@Override
			public Message postProcessMessage(Message message) throws AmqpException {
				MessageProperties p = message.getMessageProperties();
				p.setReplyTo(rndQueue);
				p.setCorrelationId(UUID.randomUUID().toString());
				return message;
			}
		});
	}
	
	//从随机队列接收计算结果
	@RabbitListener(queues = "#{rndQueue.name}")
	public void receive(long r, @Header(name=AmqpHeaders.CORRELATION_ID) String correlationId) {
		System.out.println("\n\n"+correlationId+" - 收到: "+r);
	}
	
}

测试类

package cn.tedu.m6;

import java.util.Scanner;

import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;

@SpringBootTest
class TopicTests {
	@Autowired
	RpcClient client;

	@Test
	void test1() throws Exception {
		while (true) {
			System.out.print("求第几个斐波那契数: ");
			int n = new Scanner(System.in).nextInt();
			client.send(n);
		}
	}

}

Q.E.D.

知识共享署名-非商业性使用-相同方式共享 4.0 国际许可协议

毕生所求无它,爱与自由而已